The Ten Days of Penitence
Yom Simhat Torah
Days of Fasting Days and Mourning
Judaism, like Christianity and Islam, has developed throughout the years different ideas and beliefs by members of the Jewish communities who, at the time, were dissatisfied with the “status quo.”
In general this dissatisfaction could be traced to political and socioeconomic reasons, as well as to different religious beliefs. As a result, many Jewish sects appeared, preaching their beliefs and hoping to carry out the changes they felt were necessary.
Of all the Jewish sects that appeared during the long history of Judaism and they were many – none was able to have as serious an effect on the Jewish mainstream as the sect of Karaism. Karaism, whose adherents are called Karaites, strongly challenged the mainstream and, to some extent, threatened its existence, and was able at times to attract 40 percent of the whole Jewish population. Karaism is the only Jewish sect besides that of the Samaritans that still exists today.
“The Karaites are a Jewish sect which does not recognize the authority of the post-Biblical tradition
incorporated in the Talmud and in the latter Rabbinic works.”‘
“Rejection of the authority of the Talmud does not mean that the Karaites consider it unlawful to consult it or to rely on it; it means only that they deny its heavenly origin and regard it as an original work of the Sages in interpretation of the written Torah, and therefore subject to the shortcomings inherent in any handiwork of mortal men uninspired by heaven. There are a number of reasons why Karaites cannot acknowledge the authority of the oral Torah-
1. The word “Torah” (in the sense of Divine Instruction) is always used in the singular. Were the Mishnah a genuine (oral) Torah, surely somewhere in Scripture the existence of two Torahs would have been mentioned at least once.
2. Since the Mishnah is a commentary on the written Torah, what reason was there for the original injunction to preserve it only orally? Surely writing it down would have benefited Jewry by promoting agreement among the later Sages and reducing disagreement.
3. If the Tannaitic Sages have received their tradition through an interrupted chain of tridents going back to Moses himself, how could disagreement arise among them? They should have been of one mind in every particular.
4. The Torah is called perfect (Ps. 19:8). The Rabbanites say that it is perfect along with the Mishnah that accompanied it. If this is so, then the Mishnah is a completion of the written Torah. Why then did God order it not to be written down?
5. God surely had foreknown that someday the oral Torah would be in danger of being forgotten, and that it would become vital for its preservation to set it down in writing. Why then did He at first forbid its recording and thus expose His people to the dreadful risk of losing it altogether? The truth must be in the opposite direction: When the Sages saw that the unity of the people and the preservation of the oral Torah was in jeopardy, they invented the fiction of its having been revealed to Moses simultaneously with the written Torah, and of the ordained delay in its recording until that time, when circumstances made it imperative to reduce it to writing in order to prevent its loss.
“Aside from the rejection of the authority of the post-Biblical tradition, there is no basic divergence between the Karaite and the Rabbanite dogmatic.
Customs and Traditions
Customs are a product of many factors, among which are faith, beliefs and environment. Jews everywhere have similar customs, yet Western Jews and Eastern Jews also maintain their own distinctive customs.
In Egypt the Karaites had customs which differed from those of the Rabbanites, although some were similar.
In Cairo, more members of both communities lived in certain neighborhoods, in ‘Abbasiyah, Ghamrah, Sakakini and al-Daher. The well-to-do lived in Hilwan, Ma’,adi, or Heliopolis. The wealthy had villas in Garden City or Zamalek. That, of course, does not include many among the poor, the middle class and even a few well-to-do members who preferred to stay in the Karaite neighborhood in Khurunfish where they felt more secure and were very near to Rab Simhah synagogue.
In general, both Karaites and Rabbanites liked, and even preferred, to live near their synagogues.
Because most of the Karaites were of Egyptian origin, they acquired certain Egyptian customs. The men dressed like natives. Until early in the 20th century, most of the goldsmiths used to wear the gibbah and quftin. Lower class men wore the galabiyah with a coat over it, especially in winter.
Most women wore a two-piece dress, usually black. The bottom part was almost like a skirt, the top a plain piece of material that covered the head and shoulders to the waist. It could also be used to veil the face. This is the same kind of clothing that the middle class Muslim women in Egypt and in Turkey used to wear during the first quarter of the 20th century; it is called habarah. Upper middle class and wealthy women wore European dress. In the period covered, there were no restrictions on the kind of material or the style of clothes, as was the case in earlier centuries.’ It was not easy, therefore, to distinguish Jews, Christians, or Muslims by their style of dress.
Karaites tended to be more conservative than Rabbanites. While the latter quickly adopted European customs, the Karaites held on longer to the Oriental ways, especially with regard to women’s activities. Rabbanite girls occupied many different jobs, while Karaite girls were more interested in getting married.
During the 1920′s and the 1930′s, while it was common for Rabbanite girls to attend social gatherings and dance with young men, this was unthinkable for Karaite girls. Until the early 1930′s it was not acceptable for young Karaites of different sex to meet with each other.
Karaites in general mingled more freely with non-Jewish Egyptians. They did not have a noticeable accent, as did the Rabbanites. They did, however, use some Arabic words in a manner different from the non-Jews.’
Some Karaite women, especially the poor, were affected by their Muslim neighbors and wore amulets to keep away the evil eye and evil spirits.
Until the first quarter of the 20th century, the poor among the Karaites depended a great deal on folk medicine.
Karaites were well known for their cleanliness. Even the poor among them kept a clean house and especially a clean kitchen. Until they left Egypt, Karaites used to clean their utensils with soft sand and yellow clay. It was common to see two copper containers next to the kitchen sink, one for the soft sand and the other for the yellow clay (Tafl).
Social activities among the Karaites were limited to visits among relatives and friends. Sunday was the preferred day for this. Late in the 1930′s dance parties were held at homes to encourage young people to get together. Gambling with cards was very common among rich and poor members. Rich people used to get together in their villas, while the poor used to play in the cafes owned by Jews.
Karaite synagogues did not carry on any social activities, but there were some educational activities such as teaching Hebrew and the faith. From time to time, there were lectures in the synagogue or in the center of any existing association.
Contrary to what many believed and have said, Karaites have always considered the Sabbath the most joyous day of the week and among the most holy days in the Jewish calendar.
According to the faith, the Sabbath is holy and hence sexual intercourse is not permitted during that day. It is a day of joy, so no mourning or fasting is permitted during this day unless Yom Kippur falls on the Sabbath. It is the day when every head of the family, even the poorest, takes pains to provide the best affordable meal for his family.
In the Karaite neighborhood at lunch time on any Saturday there was an aroma of good food mixed with the distinctive odor of thyme and that of the preferred liqueur among the Karaites of Cairo, ouzo.
Along with Purim and Rosh ha-Shanah, the Sabbath is the day chosen by most young men and women for becoming engaged. Everything, however, must be prepared before the Sabbath.
To prolong the Sabbath the Karaites start sunset prayers earlier than usual. At home, before and after dinner, they recite prayers fit for the occasion (PI. 1). They also sing songs to welcome the Sabbath (PI. 2). Saturday morning, before and after breakfast, other prayers are recited (PI. 3). Saturday evening prayers, however, are said shortly after the sun sets. Prayers end when the hazzan reads the habdalah, a blessing to thank the Lord that the Sabbath has ended safely and the days of labor have arrived (PI. 4). Because it is not permitted to have wine inside the synagogue, the hazzan reads the blessing outside the sanctuary. Worshippers then exchange greetings in Arabic, gomitkum khadrah (“May your week be green”) or in Hebrew, Shebuwa’ T6b (“May you have a good week”).
At home the reading of the habdalah continues and this time the blessing is also read over a cup of wine,- along with a myrtle or rue branch followed by chanting special songs (PI. 5).
It was common to see worshippers going very early in the morning to the synagogue of Mosheh Al-Dar’! in ‘Abbiisiyah. A little before noon many returned home carrying the velvet bag that contains the tallit and the prayer books. They were all well dressed, looking happy and content. In Al-Harah, the Karaite neighborhood, a joyous feeling filled the air: it is the Sabbath.
Karaites base their calendar on the actual observance of the moon. Therefore, the holy days could fall on any day. They also observe one day for all the holy days except Passover.
The Rabbanites adopted a system of a fixed calendar, and thus certain holy days must fall on certain days, for example Passover must fall on Saturday, Sunday, Tuesday or Thursday. Shabu’ot must fall on the same day of the week as the second day of Passover; Rosh Hashanah must fall on the same day of the week as the third day of Passover; Yom Simhat Torah, on the same day of the week as the fourth day of Passover; Yom Kippur on the same day of the week as the fifth day; and Purim on the same day as the sixth day.
Karaites believe that this kind of calculation has no basis in the scripture and is the invention of the early sages of the Rabbanites.
This is the feast of freedom, liberty, and the end of bondage that the Jews in Egypt suffered for centuries. “And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the Lord throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever” (Exodus 12:14). “Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread” (Exodus 12:15).
Among the Karaites of Egypt, the preparations for this holiday began as early as January. It was the responsibility of the chairman of the Mass6t Committee to take all the necessary steps: to buy wheat, grind it, and bag the flour in ritually clean bags. It was his responsibility to get the kasher bakery ready and to start baking the mass6t seven weeks before Passover.
Those who used to make the masa6t were Egyptians. They came from a village north of Cairo. Once they arrived at the Karaite Bet-Din, they were under the strictest possible regulations. They were all sent to the public bath house, after which each member received a set of clean white clothes. During the making of the mass6t, no bread or non-kasher food was allowed inside the bakery. The workers all slept in a special place in the bakery building. In all, they were 1 1 persons: a dough maker and his helper; a person to cut the dough and weigh each piece to almost a half a pound; and two groups of four each, who sat at two long oak tables spreading the dough to a certain size. The last one spread it until it was almost transparent (18 inches in diameter) and then threw it to the baker, who then baked it to a golden color and afterwards let it cool. When ready, it was wrapped in a special paper, usually 5 or 10 pieces per package. They were then put in a crate made of palm branches. The mass()t were stored in a special room for future delivery. The person who used to wrap the massot was responsible for the daily production count as well as for the total production.
Another responsibility of the BEt-Din was to prepare the list of those who would need help. Because of the unusual expenses needed for this holiday, those members of the community who could afford it were often more generous during Passover. They would donate meat, rice, eggs, potatoes, cooking oil, vegetables, and clothes. At first some members would deliver personally what they donated. But beginning with the year 1950, the welfare committee assumed this responsibility and organized the delivery system so that needy persons received a fair share of the donated goods.
The most difficult responsibility fell on the shoulders of the women. Karaites are extremely fussy about cleanliness, and about making their houses ritually clean for Passover. Beginning right after Purim, each woman would start to purify her house room by room. Once a room was purified, no hameS6 was allowed in. A room is considered ritually cleaned if its walls, windows and doors are cleaned with soap and water and if the furniture in it is thoroughly cleaned inside and out. The kitchen was the last room to be purified; that would generally be done the day before the eve of Passover. From that time on, no bread was allowed in the house.
During the seven days of Passover, Karaites refrain from eating any grains that have to be soaked before cooking, including all kinds of beans.’ Karaite women also sifted all rice and wheat to remove all broken grains, leaving only the perfect ones.9 Until the first decade of the 20th century each family used to grind its own wheat at home, or send it to a stone mill in al-Harah. It then became the responsibility of the Karaite Bet-Din to prepare the flour and the massat needed for the holiday. At first there were many complaints about the quality and the quantity of the mass6t. That encouraged some individuals to offer to take responsibility for the whole operation, but more problems occurred. 10 Beginning in the third decade of the 20th century, the Karaite religious council decided once again to give more time and effort to the operation, and yet until the 1950′s there were many complaints.
In the early days of the sect, Karaites used to make the mass6t from barley, but later they made it from wheat. ‘Aniin considered the barley the food of the poor, as were the Jews when they left Egypt. II
Aside from fruits and fresh vegetables, Karaites used to refrain from eating anything not made at home such as candies, chocolate, and jams, for example; they used to make their jams preferably from morello cherry and coconut. To be sure that it was completely ritually clean, they used to buy the whole coconut, peel it, and then grate it themselves.
During the week before Passover, teams of four men each, upon request, used to go to Karaite homes with their ritually cleaned utensils and make a special cake for Passover. It was a pleasure to watch these men arrive in their clean white aprons, working together, and within less than one hour many sheets were ready to be sent to the bakery. In addition, another well known cookie, “the lozato” macaroon was made as well (it was common not to find stoves in homes in Egypt).
The bakery, too, had to be purified at least ten days before the holy days. Many bakers where Karaite lived welcomed the season and agreed to have their bakeries ritually cleaned.
Passover in Egypt used to have a very joyous atmosphere. This was partly due to the beautiful spring weather which usually prevailed in Egypt, as well as to the new look of the house after having been cleaned and, in many cases, repainted.
One sure sign of Passover among the Karaites was a new tablecloth that had to be ritually clean. Each family brought out all the kasher utensils used only for Passover: pots, pans, silverware, plates, glasses, etc.
A few days before the holiday, the man of the house would buy a variety of nuts and dry dates. In preparation for the holy day all shops closed early.
A rich table was always ready to welcome the holy day: barbecued lamb, 12 bitter herbs (merorim), as mentioned in the Torah, II a special massah for the blessing, rice, various kinds of vegetables, especially stuffed grape leaves, and of course, wine made especially for Passover. 15
In Egypt, Karaites were very strict about any food or drink that did not fall into the “kasher for Passover” category. Despite this, many (especially those who lived in Al-Harah) used to drink ouzo during this feast. Hakham Tobiah tried in vain to put an end to this illegal practice.
The Haggadah was read on the first night only, and not again on the second night.
Karaites consider the first and the last days of Passover holy days, and so no work was permitted. Both days are called “Holy Convocation.” The last day is also called “Yom Shebe’i ‘Aseret. At the synagogue there were special prayers for the first and the last day of Passover.
According to the Karaite interpretation of Leviticus 23:15 this feast must fall on Sunday. 19 It is also known by other names, among them are Yom Hamishim Lisfirat Hanfat ha-’Omer, that is the fiftieth day from the day of offering the spikes of crops, and Hag ha-Bikkurim, that is the feast of harvesting.
During this feast, a pilgrimage to Jerusalem is required. As usual, the Karaites had a special menu for the holiday. The recipes featured milk and honey, signifying hope for a good year. It was also the custom to eat the new crops -bikurim. There was another custom among the Karaites of Egypt, one whose origin I have been unable to trace. A husband must offer his wife a goose which is to be cooked and eaten to avoid any misunderstanding in the future. It was not surprising then that in Cairo another name was added to this feast: the feast of the goose, ‘Id al- Wizzah.
As always, special services were held in the synagogue on this day.
More commonly known as Rosh ha-Shanah, this festival is celebrated on the first day of the month in Tishri, as mentioned in the Torah . 2 1 Karaites do not blow the shofar, because neither the temple nor the altar exist in Jerusalem.
Everyone comes to the synagogue wearing his best clothes, and in most cases these are new.
Karaites allow no work on that day except what is needed to prepare food (Leviticus 23:23, 24). The central government allowed its Jewish employees to take this day off, as was the case with Yom ha-Kippurim. It is a joyous holy day and Karaites took full advantage of that. It was the day to pay parents and grandparents a visit, a day to have parties and celebrations. Yet it was considered a day of prayer and rest.
These start from the evening of Yom Teria’,qh and end on Yom ha-Kippurim. On those days Karaites used to go to the synagogue before dawn and recite Selihc)t (penitential prayers). The Selihot used to last until sunrise, when the morning prayers began. Although the period is named the “Ten Days of Penitence,” the Selih6t are read only on seven and sometimes even on six days, as they were read neither on the Saturday (the Sabbath) nor on Yom Teru’ah, nor on Yom Kippur. During these ten days sexual intercourse is completely forbidden.
Karaites refrain from eating or drinking for 26 or 27 hours, from sometime before sunset on the eve of the fast until the evening prayer of the following day, Yom Kippur is completed. Both synagogues were crowded on that day. Those who lived within walking distance used to walk, while residents of the suburbs, such as Hilwan and Heliopolis would spend the fast day with their relatives who lived near the synagogues.
Everyone wore his cleanest clothes. Because the fast falls during the warm season, many men used to don a new white galabiyah. This might also have had something to do with Ecclesiastes 9:9, “Let thy garment be always white.” Women were not permitted to wear makeup.
According to Karaite belief, prayers are a substitute for offerings and sacrifices. On that day, therefore, prayers were extended up to the time of the afternoon orison.
Then all the Torah scrolls were taken out and passed from hand to hand for the blessing involved in carrying them. The worshippers circled the synagogue many times, while prayers of penitence and for mercy were recited (compassion, forgiveness). When the prayers were completed the scrolls were returned to their place amidst loud rejoicing and exultation. At that point, it was time for a short rest followed by the evening prayer. At the end of the prayer the hakham takes out a scroll and blesses the worshippers and asks the Lord to accept their fast and prayers. (Karaite Prayer Book, Vol. 3, p. 192, “El-Elohim”)” (PI. 6). He ends his blessing when he reads line A; the worshippers reply with line B.
Karaites had a bad way of breaking their fast; they would drink very cold homemade lemonade. That never helped; on the contrary, it caused more trouble. And sometimes the rich table prepared for the occasion was never touched.
This is a holiday commemorating the Exodus and the gathering of the harvest.
A beautiful sukkah was built each year in both synagogues. Each one was covered with four kinds of plants: palm and willow branches, thick branches, and citrus fruits, especially etrog.
To give the sukkah a more beautiful look, it was filled with olive branches, pomegranates, and myrtle branches.
Sukkot is one of the three holidays when pilgrimage to Jerusalem is required of all Jews. Karaites would often make this pilgrimage. Because Jews were not permitted to pray at the Wailing Wall, Karaites would pray at their old synagogue, which is within walking distance of the Wall .24
Sukkot provided a good opportunity for the children who had finished their Hebrew education to attend the prayers in the sukkah and join with everyone in singing (PI. 7). From time to time the beadle of the synagogue would pass around grapes and dates taken from the sukkah. The sukkah itself was kept until the eve of Yom Simhat Torah; then it was dismantled. On the Sabbath between Sukkot and Simhat Torah, after the Haftarah, the Karaites read a special lamentation in memory of Moses which starts with “al-Mibbikh!” (Karaite Prayer Book, Vol. 1,p.341) (PI. 8).
This most joyous of all holy days is known also as Yom Shemini ‘Aseret. It is the day when the Torah was completed.
According to Karaite belief, Simhat Torah marks the 22nd day of the 7th month, and is the last of the 18 days that the Torah designates as “holy convocation”.
Karaites do not work on this day.
On Yom Simhat Torah, both associations that offered instruction in Hebrew used the occasion to celebrate a kind of graduation. In the morning, all the boys and girls who had completed their Hebrew schooling would gather in the headquarters of both associations. Each boy and girl would cover his or her head with a new tallit; the girls would wear white and hold candles and flowers. Each group walked in procession to the synagogue, following a brass band. The celebration included the singing of the Shema’, Adonai Melekh, and AnnaAdonaiHoshi’a Na. In the synagogue the day used to start early as usual. The service is long, rich with songs, the reading of psalms, and many rituals.
As is the case with all Jews, the service started with prayers. From Volume 2 of the Karaite Prayer Book, worshippers read parts of pages 58 until 216.
When this part was completed the treasurer, gabbay, and beadle, shammas, of the synagogue would sell the pomegranates which were taken from the sukkah. Each one would be sold for $25, whereupon the buyer would donate it to the synagogue to be sold again and so on. Some preferred to keep it as a blessing. The money collected was donated to the Jewish Hospital run by the Rabbanite Community.
Prayers for taking the scrolls out were recited. On Yom Simhat Torah two lessons were read; the first one, Zot ha-Berakhah, marks the completion of reading the Torah. The second one, Bereshit marks the beginning of reading the Torah. Each lesson was read from a different scroll. When the reading was ended all the scrolls were taken out to start a joyous procession in the sanctuary. That usually coincided with the arrival of all the children at the synagogue who were welcomed by the worshippers with singing and rejoicing.
A special table, tevah, was placed in the center of the sanctuary of the synagogue and a special scroll was placed on it.
Each child in turn read a portion of certain songs for Simhat Torah while the worshippers circled the sanctuary carrying the scrolls. Before each portion was read all the worshippers would recite the Shema I three times, and when each portion was completed, Adonai Melekh was recited three times (PI. 9).
When all the portions were read, all the scrolls were returned except two; one of them was the Sefer Qurbign, the other was the Sefer Bereshit.
Once again special prayers and blessings were recited, after which the haftarah was read, followed by other prayers and blessings, and thus the service for Yom Simhat Torah ended.
This is a holiday and a memorial day dedicated to the miracle of saving all the Jews. Both communities used to celebrate it in the gayest way. It was almost a tradition among the youth of both communities to spend the eve of Yom Purim in Harat Al-Yahud. For this reason the whole area was cleaned and some parts were decorated.
A wide variety of legal and illegal entertainment was offered, most of which consisted of gambling games. Belly dancers were everywhere. Stands sold shishkabab, pasta, pickles, and salads.
Both Jewish neighborhoods were closed, so that no outsider could get in unless accompanied by a Jew. Even then, a non-Jew very likely would feel out of place. Celebrations often started a few days before Purim, and on the eve of Purim itself they lasted the entire night until early next morning.
It was the custom among the youth of both communities to dress in fancy clothing and move freely in the neighborhood where they liked. The natives for this reason called the feast ‘Eid A]-Maskharah, the feast of masquerade.
In almost every Karaite home one can find two kinds of light dessert: wedan hjmdn, “haman’s ears, 3333″which are very thin and ligit cookies shaped like big ears. The second dessert is a kind of rectangular 33333strudel filled with cream; it is called bugh.ashah.
Purim was the day for exchanging gifts. The head of the family would give each member a generous monetary gift.
In the synagogues, it was an occasion to light candies. All candles were made out of beeswax in a special room in the Karaite Bet-Din, under the supervision of a member of the community.”
Most, if not all, Karaites used to close their shops that day. In addition, Purim was by tradition among the favorite holidays when engagements were announced.
The Karaites have fast days which are also considered days of mourning:
The 24th of Tishri, the -10th of Tevet, the 9th of Tammuz, the 7th and the 10th of Av. Karaites consider the period from the first of Tammuz until the 10th of Av a period of mourning for the destruction of the Temple. They refrain from eating meat, and weddings and all kinds of entertainment are not permitted.29
On the Saturdays from the 9th of Tammuz until the 10th of Av, four or five
special prayers are read in the morning (PI. 10).
On the 7th of Av, after the service, Karaites read special prayers.
Their mourning reaches its peak on the 10th of Av. On this day, following the service, Karaites read Lamentation, Qinnc)t, followed by a reading of the entire book of Job. When they finish reading it, some of the worshippers leave the synagogue for the cemetery to read a memorial, after which they return to the synagogue and join with the other worshippers in reading the “Consolation,” Nehamot, and thus the services for that day are concluded. Ritual slaughterers are then permitted to slaughter. Because the time then would be after twelve noon, special arrangements were made to keep the slaughter house open until that hour.
It was also common among older people to fast on Mondays and on Thursdays on a voluntary basis.
The Karaites always welcome the first of the new months, which is also the day of the new moon.
When a child was born, it was the responsibility of the head of the house to inform the Bet-Din of the birth. The message was sent as quickly as possible when the newborn was a boy, but many neglected this responsibility when the child was a girl.
The circumcision of a boy, according to Jewish law, must take place on the 8th day of life. Nothing can be permitted to delay it, unless the baby is sick. The Karaite community had at least five ritual circumcisers at all times. They performed this service free of charge; it was considered a pious deed (a mizvah). There was a schedule to be followed, so that each circumciser, mohel, would have his chance, yet it was always understood that the father of the newborn reserved the right to choose any mohel he preferred.
Two days before the assigned date, a special chair was sent to the house of the newborn, along with a handbag containing all the needed equipment (a formality, since each mohel had his own private tools). The father, or grandfather if living, would sit in the chair and hold the baby in his lap. The mohel recites a special blessing, then he performs the circumcision. The blessing is also a reminder of the ordinance that an eight days old boy must be circumcised.
The operation itself is similar to that of the Rabbanites, except that the Karaites never followed the old Rabbanite custom of sucking the blood (no longer practiced at all). After circumcision the responsibility of the mohel included one or more visits to the baby, if needed.
The Karaites had a beautiful custom associated with the circumcision. Before the operation, the baby was put on a velvet pillow decorated with lace. The older sister of the baby (if she was of marriageable age), or any other relative, would carry the baby, while the mother stood a short distance in front. As the guests sang and recited prayers, the baby was introduced several times to the mother. After that, another song was chanted, then the operation took place, followed by a third song.
It was a tradition to serve special cookies called lozato, made from almond paste (known elsewhere as “macaroons”).
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